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2011-06-11Aristotle Ethics「お金,価値の基準,正義.オイコノミア」.innovation Schumpeter

アリストテレス『ニコマコス倫理学』を moneyでgrepしてみました。

| 08:53 | アリストテレス『ニコマコス倫理学』を moneyでgrepしてみました。 - 少し経済 を含むブックマーク はてなブックマーク - アリストテレス『ニコマコス倫理学』を moneyでgrepしてみました。 - 少し経済

目次

新宮秀夫が引用した アリストテレス倫理学における 正義のためのツール?

第17回 環境工学連合講演会 論文集  平成14年1月

エネルギー倫理

ENERGY ETHICS

新宮秀夫

Hideo Shingu


6.エネルギーと経済学


 「お金が価値の基準を与え、異なる品物の交易に正義をもたらす。」アリストテレスは『ニコマコス倫理学』にこう述べて、家政学(オイコノミア)の説明をしている。社会活動に正義をもたらすのだから、家政学の発展した経済学倫理学と関連が深い。

井原西鶴の日本永代蔵(1689)(7)や、アダム・スミス国富論(1776)(8)の頃までは、経済活動は、人力と、せいぜい水力、風力などにより支えられているので、経済活動象徴である富が何処にどんな理由で存在しているのか、それが正義に基ずいて築かれたものか否かが人々の目にはっきりと見えていたようだ。ところが、ドーデーの、風車小屋便り(1865), を読むと、南フランスのアヴィニヨン地方で盛んだった

風車による製粉業が20年ほど前にすっかり“悪魔の考えた蒸気”による製粉工場に置き替わってしまった事がわかる(4)。

産業革命石炭エネルギーの大量消費によって支えられたが、エネルギーの大量消費は莫大な富をもたらす事になり、その富が少数の人たちに独占されて、著しい不正義が世の中に広がってしまった。そのような莫大な富の生ずる社会活動すなわち近代経済を説明しようとするのが、例えば、生産によってどれだけ利益が生ずるのかを考える限界分析と言う手法を考え出した、新古典派経済学である。そして、富の偏析を正そうとして、富が富を生む複利法的拡大の不可避な資本主義の本質的欠陥を指摘したのがマルクス主義経済学だ。

 富の偏りと言う意味での不正義は、前述の人間がより良く生きるという、第一、第二の倫理の問題だが、そればかりでなく、エネルギー大量消費社会のあり方ついて、それは本来人間が生きるべき生き方とは違うのではないかと、第三の倫理感に沿った問い掛けをする人々が、経済学者にも自然科学者にも現れた。

7.エネルギー倫理の歴史

404 Not Found
1594年 オランダ“風の文明”の一次エネルギー構成比。フランス?風車小屋だより出版は1869年、初出は1865年?フランス プロヴァンスの風車小屋がほとんど廃れ 蒸気機関製粉工場化したのは その20年まえ1845年ごろ?、、 - 少し経済 - econ

アリストテレス『ニコマコス倫理学』テキストの 単語moneyが含まれている箇所。

いろいろ版が あるようだ、

ここでは 日付の新らし目のでみてみた。 テキストに変換しきれてない部分もけっこうあるな、

アリストテレス『ニコマコス倫理学』だかを moneyで xyzzygrep機能してみました。

The ethics of Aristotle (Open Library):

Published 1890 by W. Scott, ltd. in London .

Written in English.

http://www.archive.org/download/nicomacheanethi10arisgoog/nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:1614:As for the life of money-making, it is one of con- From the

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:2311:not easy, to do noble actions: for mends, money, gggg^ce, yet

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:2871:money in like way.

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:3975:" All things whose value is measured by money."

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:4268:ftQg^y^ to give money, and be expensive, is what any

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:4917:nected with the healing art, or with money-making ;

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:4958:up; if money, for instance, be necessary, but cannot ration,

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6030:are pained at the loss of money or friends.

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6377:measured by money.

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6385:control and spend money on the unrestrained gratifi-

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6413:using of money, but receiving and keeping one would

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6542:Again, should it happen to him to spend money

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6649:being fond of money rather than apt to give : more-

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:6777:being the same, and without spending more money

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8051:viewed tc- at an expense of money and damage ; this Jatter will

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8634:some com- ^^^ ^^r this purpose money has come in, and comes

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8645:of money, maker, so mauy shoes must be to the house, (or

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8660:represents And money has come to be, by general agree-

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8738:Theadvan- And further, money is a kind of secarity to us in

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8740:money as a jIjj^^ one wants nothing now that we shall have it

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8741:exchfl^K^ when we do) : the theory of money heing that when-

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8749:if exchange then dealing. So money, like a

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8761:things are measured by money. Let B represent

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:8767:ducted before the existence of money : for it makes

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:9512:good under '^^y * fiR^^> ^^^ ^°^ actually get land but money by

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:9527:entirely in strike one's neighbour, or give the money with one's

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:12484:respect of money, or gain, or honour, or anger ; and

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:12551:money, gain, honour, victory, for instance;) in re-^.^^y

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14304:undertaken with a view to making money, or some

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14837:done :'* their notion being, that as in a money

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14865:possible both to make money out of the Public and

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14868:loss as regards money they award honour^ but money

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14875:advantages another in respect of money, or goodness,

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14930:sure has been provided in money, and to this ac-

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14988:take the money in advance and then do nothing

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:14996:taken money for doing.

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:15016:money, and, in fact, an - exactly equivalent price

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:15702:people who have themselves made their money are

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:15844:need be: for money and honours, and, in short,

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:15859:themselves: and they will lavish their own money

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:15861:friend gets the money but the man himself the

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:17594:Whereas I mean, the liberal man must have money to do

nicomacheanethi10arisgoog_djvu.txt:17646:think they have money or any thing of the kind.

The ethics of Aristotle (1890 edition) | Open Library

WikipediaのNicomachean_Ethicsを、moneyでgrep


wikipedia-en-nicomachean:109: Money making, which Aristotle asserts to be a life based on aiming at what is pursued by necessity in order to achieve higher goals, an intermediate good.

wikipedia-en-nicomachean:235:giving and getting (smaller amounts of) money Liberality (Rackham), generosity (Sachs) (eleutheriot?s) Prodigality (Rackham), Wastefulness (Sachs) (as?tia) Meanness (Rackham), Stinginess (Sachs) (aneleutheria)

wikipedia-en-nicomachean:238:This is a virtue we observe when we see how people act with regards to giving money, and things whose worth is thought of in terms of money. The two un-virtuous extremes are wastefulness and stinginess (or meanness). Stinginess is most obviously taking money too seriously, but wastefulness, less strictly speaking, is not always the opposite (an under estimation of the importance of money) because it is also often caused by being unrestrained. A wasteful person is destroyed by their own acts, and has many vices at once. Aristotle's approach to defining the correct balance is to treat money like any other useful thing, and say that the virtue is to know how to use money: giving to the right people, the right amount at the right time. Also, as with each of the ethical virtues, Aristotle emphasizes that such a person gets pleasures and pains at doing the virtuous and beautiful thing. Aristotle goes slightly out of his way to emphasize that generosity is not a virtue associated with making money, because, he points out, a virtuous person is normally someone who causes beautiful things, rather than just being a recipient. Aristotle also points out that we do not give much gratitude and praise at all to someone simply for not taking (which might however earn praise for being just). Aristotle also points out that "generous people are loved practically the most of those who are recognized for virtue, since they confer benefits, and this consists in giving" and he does not deny that generous people often won't be good at maintaining their wealth, and are often easy to cheat. Aristotle goes further in this direction by saying that it might seem that it is better to be wasteful than to be stingy: a wasteful person is cured by age, and by running out of resources, and if they are not merely unrestrained people then they are foolish rather than vicious and badly brought-up. Also, a wasteful person at least benefits someone. Aristotle points out also that a person with this virtue would not get money from someone he should not get it, in order to give "for a decent sort of taking goes along with a decent sort of giving". Having said this however, most people we call wasteful are not only wasteful in the sense opposed to being generous, but also actually unrestrained and have many vices at once. Such people are actually often wasteful and stingy at the same time, and when trying to be generous they often take from sources whence they should not (for example pimps, loan sharks, gamblers, thieves), and they give to the wrong people. Such people can be helped by guidance, unlike stingy people, and most people are somewhat stingy. In fact, ends Aristotle, stinginess is reasonably called the opposite of generosity, "both because it is a greater evil than wastefulness, and because people go wrong more often with it than from the sort of wastefulness described".[51]

wikipedia-en-nicomachean:245:This is a virtue similar to generosity except that it deals with spending large amounts of wealth. Aristotle says that while "the magnificent man is liberal, the liberal man is not necessarily magnificent". The immoderate vices in this case would be concerning "making a great display on the wrong occasions and in the wrong way". The extremes to be avoided in order to achieve this virtue are paltriness (Rackham) or chintziness (Sachs) on the one hand and tastelessness or vulgarity on the other. Aristotle reminds us here that he has already said that moral dispositions (hexeis) are caused by the activities (energeia) we perform, meaning that a magnificent person's virtue can be seen from the way he chooses the correct magnificent acts at the right times. The aim of magnificence, like any virtue, is beautiful action, not for the magnificent man himself but on public things, such that even his private gifts have some resemblance to votive offerings. Because he is aiming at a spectacle, a person with this virtue will not be focusing on doing things cheaply, which would be petty, and he or she may well overspend. So as with liberality, Aristotle sees a potential conflict between some virtues, and being good with money. But he does say that magnificence requires spending according to means, at least in the sense that poor man can not be magnificent. The vices of paltriness and vulgar chintziness "do not bring serious discredit, since they are not injurious to others, nor are they excessively unseemly".[52]

wikipedia-en-nicomachean:318:Unlike with the treatment of flattery, described simply as a vice, Aristotle describes ways in which a person might be relatively blameless if they were occasionally dishonest about their own qualities, as long as this does not become a fixed disposition to boast. Specifically, according to Aristotle boasting would not be very much blamed if the aim is honor or glory, but it would be blameworthy if the aim is money.

wikipedia-en-nicomachean:341:Aristotle however says that apart from the complete virtue which would encompass not only all types of justice, but also all types of excellence of character, there is a partial virtue which gets called justice, which is clearly distinct from other character flaws. Cowardice for example, might specifically cause a soldier to throw away his shield and run. However, not everyone who runs from a battle does so from cowardice. Often, Aristotle observes, these acts are caused by over-reaching or greed (pleonexia) and are ascribed to injustice. Unlike with the virtues discussed so far, an unjust person does not necessarily desire what is bad for themselves as an individual, nor do they even necessarily desire too much of things, if too much would be bad for them. Such "particular injustice" is always greed aimed at particular good things such as honor or money or security.[70]

wikipedia-en-nicomachean:767:Book IX and the last sections of Book VIII turn to the question of how friends and partners generally should reward each other and treat each other, whether it be in money or honor or pleasure. This can sometimes be complex because parties may not be equals. Aristotle notes that the type of friendship most likely to be hurt by complaints of unfairness is that of utility and reminds that "the objects and the personal relationships with which friendship is concerned appear [...] to be the same as those which are the sphere of justice".[104] And it is the transactions of friends by utility which sometimes require the use of written laws.[105] Furthermore, all associations and friendships are part of the greater community, the polis,[106] and different relationships can be compared to the different types of constitution, according to the same classification system Aristotle explains in his Politics (Monarchy, Tyranny, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Timocracy, and Democracy).[107]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicomachean_Ethics

innovation in Veblen

| 13:04 | innovation in Veblen - 少し経済 を含むブックマーク はてなブックマーク - innovation in Veblen - 少し経済

innovation in Veblen

http://www.archive.org/download/theoryofleisurec00vebl/theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:2233:proximate end of innovation and elaboration has been

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:3198:and the proximate aim of innovation is no doubt the

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:3203:seizes upon such innovations as are, according to its

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6352:ship embodied in any costly innovations in the finish

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6354:ance and permanent favour. The innovation must have

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6555:a creative principle which makes innovations and adds

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6569:the survival of such innovations as may be made on

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6832:to invention and innovation in fashions, we shall have

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6843:successive innovation in the fashions is an effort to reach

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6849:innovation is subject to the selective action of the norm

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6946:innovations in dress, each added or altered detail strives

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:6955:these innovations from becoming anything more than

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7769:wealthy class opposes innovation because it has a

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7785:yield to the demand for innovation as readily as other

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7804:istic, is decorous ; and conversely, innovation, being a

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7830:ance of all other classes against any innovation, and to

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7848:that it acts to retard innovation and the growth of

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7886:considerable. In order to effect such an innovation a

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7890:any such innovation amounts to a shrinking from an

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7904:one of these innovations would, we are told, "shake the

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7917:effect of these and like innovations in deranging the

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7922:of innovations of first-rate importance is true in a less

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:7973:is a serious obstacle to any innovation.

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:8045:classes, social innovation and experiment would hurry

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:8053:on headlong innovation, the leisure class, in the nature

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:14403:taken an attitude of deprecation towards all innovations.

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:14408:from this rule are chiefly to be mentioned innovations of

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:14420:higher learning have looked askance at all innovation.

theoryofleisurec00vebl_djvu.txt:14431:of knowledge until the innovations have outlived their

The theory of the leisure class | Open Library

http://www.archive.org/download/theorybusinesse00veblgoog/theorybusinesse00veblgoog_djvu.txt

theorybusinesse00veblgoog_djvu.txt:15113:innovation, less bound by convention and prescription. This generali-

theorybusinesse00veblgoog_djvu.txt:16464:to speak deprecatingly of the vulgar innovations

The theory of business enterprise | Open Library

費用関数下方シフト型イノヴェイター、生産関数上方シフト型イノヴェイター

| 14:03 | 費用関数下方シフト型イノヴェイター、生産関数上方シフト型イノヴェイター - 少し経済 を含むブックマーク はてなブックマーク - 費用関数下方シフト型イノヴェイター、生産関数上方シフト型イノヴェイター - 少し経済

http://www.ohashi.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/rep103j-2.pdf

2.4 イノベーションのインパクトの定量的把握に向けて

2.4.1 市場データを用いたイノベーションの測定

【大橋 弘(東京大学 大学院経済学研究科 助教授)】



一般にはイノベーションは、プロダクト・イノベーションを想定することが通例だ

が、経済学においては理論的にも実証的にもプロセスイノベーションにその研究の

重点が置かれてきた。プロセスイノベーション生産性とも呼ばれ、概念的には生

関数の上昇へのシフト、あるいは費用関数の下方へのシフトによって捉えることが

できる。・・・

医学 イノベーション 残差 OR 誤差 - 霊犀社2

Hiroshi Ohashi 大橋 弘:イノベーション

| 16:20 | Hiroshi Ohashi 大橋 弘:イノベーション - 少し経済 を含むブックマーク はてなブックマーク - Hiroshi Ohashi 大橋 弘:イノベーション - 少し経済

イノベーションのインパクトの定量的把握に向けて―市場データを用いたイノベーションの測定』 2007年3月「イノベーションの測定に向けた基礎的調査報告書」(NISTEP REPORT NO.103 第2章4.1節 190-224)

(勝手に解題)

一般にはイノベーションは、:

プロセスイノベーション生産性とも呼ばれ、概念的には

  • 生産関数の上昇へのシフト、あるいは
  • 費用関数の下方へのシフト

によって捉えることができる。

医学 イノベーション 残差 OR 誤差 - 霊犀社2
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